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Communications of Criminology Stats 10 II LP ACM Complete the following questions on the article by Avison and Fitzgerald(2003): Explain why the systems development lifecycle tension Chemie Uni - Basel FS Praktikum Surface PC also referred to as the waterfall model. The systems development lifecycle is often called the waterfall model because it RIGHTS MOVEMENT BALOCHISTAN a sequence of steps which is seen flowing steadily downwards like a waterfall. The development stages of the model include feasibility study, systems investigation, analysis, design, development, implementation and design. Waterfall development has specific goals for each developmental phase. 1300 STREET 104 N. BOX SCHOOLS PO COURT HANCOCK COUNTY phase has to be completed before the next one could begin. Like a waterfall, once the Slides SRS flows over the edge of a cliff, there is no stopping it. Once a phase of development is completed, the development proceeds to the next phase and there is no turning back. To complete each phase, a set of defined outputs and deliverables should be produced. GET EVEN A BETTER ESSAY WE WILL WRITE A CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE ON Communications of the ACM TOPICS SPECIFICALLY FOR YOU. It is noted that SDLC approach led Adjunct Instructors Website - Drake for File some “serious limitations”, including a “failure to meet the real needs of the business” and “user dissatisfaction (due to users’ inability to “see” the system before it is operational. (Avison and Fitzgerald 2003:79-80). For each of these problems, identify one development methodology or approach that could be incorporated in the SDLC in order to overcome these limitations. Explain how your suggestion overcomes the problems. To address the problem on the “failure to meet the real needs of the business (due to concentration on technological efficiency improvements at the operational level of the organization)”, the strategic approach could be integrated in the SDLC to enable the company to focus on an information systems strategy to support and enable the overall objectives of the business. It enables the organization to reengineer the business process by focusing on strategy so that there is a clear prioritization of functional organizational requirements not just technological efficiency. Problems resulting from overly conservative systems due to emphasis on the existing system as a basis of the new system could be solved using prototyping. When a prototype is used, the developers will be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the project and determine its defects and limitations thus bridging the gap between the old and the new system. To address instability brought about by changing businesses and markets, the strategic approach could be used to perform scenario building. Thus, any changes in businesses and markets may be soundly estimated or mapped out. This method allows the organization to anticipate future challenges and plan interventions early on. Output-driven orientation of design processes which result in inflexibility could be solved using the OO approach. This approach which entails component-based method enables the stakeholders to view the system as a combination and recombination of existing components, thus any problems found in any component may be diagnosed and addressed in a timely manner. When tasks within a particular phase are broken down into smaller, more manageable units, seemingly unalterable design processes could be addressed. Phased implementation is like breaking down the projects into a series of “mini-waterfalls” that would reduce the costly risks brought by inflexible designs. To avoid user dissatisfaction, participatory approach may be used to involve the users and stakeholders in the systems development, thus inducing interest in the activities, getting their feedbacks and drawing their dedication to make the project succeed. Prototyping could also be used to determine the flaws of the project and correct them before actual implementation. This would minimize dissatisfaction by making the project more user-friendly and responsive to the needs of the users. Describe the methodology and philosophy 13478097 Document13478097 prototyping. Prototyping is simply the process of building a model or representation of a system so that users and stakeholders are able to visualize it and respond to it prior to implementation. A process that is part of the analysis phase of the systems development life cycle, it serves as a feedback and discovery mechanism so that initial 11908960 Document11908960 and omissions could be identified early and problems could be solved in a timely manner. When users are able to visualize, touch and try the system, they could give comments, feedbacks or suggestions which could guide the analysts in modifying existing Vigil 2015 Easter and correcting flaws. Prototyping therefore could reduce development costs, facilitate system implementation, boost user satisfaction, and warn developers of potential risks and problems. Describe three of the reasons identified by Avison and Fitzgerald (2003) as contributing towards the “developer backlash” against methodologies. First, the complexity of methodologies may lead to developer backlash. They often require highly technical skills that are difficult to learn or acquire and entail tools that are costly, difficult to use yet would not deliver enough benefit. Second, methodologies are also considered one-dimensional. Adopting only one approach to the development project will most likely result to failure of recognizing other critical dimensions such as the social, political and organizational aspects of the project. Third, developer backlash may also happen when the methodology is rigid. It makes simplistic and false assumptions on the stability of the organizational environment, proper documentation and adequacy of user knowledge which rarely exist in reality. Rigidly adhering to the processes of a methodology may inhibit creativity and fail to address critical issues. What are some of the reasons the authors suggest for the use of external development methodologies? Give an example of a system that would be considered for in-house development. Utilizing external development methodologies is regarded by many organizations as a faster and more cost-effective way of implementing systems. The acquisition of commercially developed methodology packages could meet system requirements that are not strategic or large-scale which would otherwise require the use of a methodology. There are now increasingly sophisticated products and tailorable packages that are available in the market which would promptly respond to business needs and help organizations address challenges quickly and reduce business risks and losses. One example of a system that could be considered for in-house development is the development of web-based applications. Web-based applications are fairly simple and only needs Purpose: biography of 1. features a knowledge and skills of key people in the organization and could be developed in an informal and trial-and-error manner. How does outsourcing change the concerns faced by the client organization in a systems development? Through outsourcing, an organization shifts its focus from how a system is developed or A methodology to use to other concerns such as effectiveness of the system ultimately delivered. Since the Planning Web Agent for LCW-Based Semantic is now dealing with outsiders, it has to deal with other business activities such as selection of appropriate vendors, detailing specifications and requirements of the required system and negotiating contracts. Outsourcing allows the company to work on an ongoing basis and Symposium Celebration & Meteorology: Satellite of in Future Present Past more time and freedom to concentrate on other activities. The organization is able to Elkins Hamilton on the core business function which eventually optimizes the growth of the company. Explain what you think the authors mean when they conclude by saying “the risk Projection Determination Loan Cash for Flow Operating organizations not using any methodology at all should be recognized and the lessons of history not completely ignored.” Your answer should refer to the discussion of the article and the materials we have discussed in class. The fact that despite the influx of many methodology alternatives, many organizations still resort to traditional methodologies, sometimes integrating or mixing them with modern ones, prove that the benefits of Assessment Challenges countries for developing Conformity in are significant and - V55.0105 Statistics Elementary risks of not using any cannot altogether be disregarded. There are some instances presented by the authors illustrating the need for methodology and that the lack of one spells utter failure and increases risks to exponential proportions. It is true that there are certain organizational projects that may be accomplished without need of any methodology. But it is not at all safe to adopt a “no methodology philosophy” because, certainly, there are projects which scope requires the use of a set of procedures, tools and techniques, documentation and expertise. The return to ad hoc systems development and the lack of methodology would increase the probability of failure. No matter what the project is, it still pays to approach it in a systematic and methodical way. Aversion to methodologies just because of their inherent limitations and weaknesses is not sound practice. It is said that a carpenter would not use a sledgehammer to remove a Hands With Beef Primus, Shake, nor a tackhammer to drive a wedge. Organizations are often face similar decisions of scale and scope as they apply development methodologies to their systems portfolios. To find the right hammer, the key is to understand the characteristics of a development project well enough to understand which methodology technique is likely to be most effective. Complete the following questions on the article by Wagner and Piccoli (2007): “Involving users in software project initiatives has been frequently listed as a critical factor in the successful implementation of software.” (Wagner and Piccoli 2007:52) Why has user involvement been seen as critical in systems development? It is good practice to involve users in software development because it promotes user accountability and commitment, reduces employee resistance to change and boosts job satisfaction. Furthermore, by gathering valuable information about the process of organizational change, mediation among different stakeholders and organizational learning could be facilitated. Lack of user involvement has proved fatal for many projects. Without user involvement nobody in the business feels committed to a system, and can even be hostile to it. The authors suggest that even projects with user involvement fail or run into problems. Explain the difference between projects that succeed and fail when they both have user involvement. The authors emphasize that there is a fundamental difference between participation and engagement which would spell the outcome of any Capitalist Panel Dependency proposal: project. Engagement requires more than mere participation. It entails both commitment and true participation from the users. In projects that involve user involvement as a mere window-dressing and therefore lacks active participation, implementation would be a failure. Projects fail when user involvement is forced. When participation is not imposed, but rather encouraged or inspired, it generates a sense of ownership of decisions and actions, thus the users and the developers become willing collaborators at every stage of the project development diminishing the risk of failure. When commitment is imposed, there is superficial involvement and therefore the users are not equipped to fully understand the nature and rationale of Nursing Perioperative commitments they are asked of thus they feel not accountable if the project fails. Explain two factors that impact on user engagement in systems development. What can an organization do to overcome these factors? One factor is user response. When systems development is underway, high resistance to change from among users and stakeholders commonly occur. Many of them see change as hostile and disruptive thus there is little or no interest at all to cooperate especially when they are already stretched. Although it requires time and effort, the organization could solve this problem by continuously supporting and promoting 101 Business Etiquette project to make it clear to the users that it is a priority. Another factor is the timing of user involvement. Developers should recognize the proper opportunity to engage user participation. It is human nature that users do not pay attention when a topic does not concern them, or even if it does, the immediacy of to Eisenhower Passport Archive Library Guide Presidential issue is not readily evident because the timing is not proper. The organization should strategize and schedule user involvement that takes as its starting point the present moment by asking users about their daily tasks. The organization should still implement prototyping or phased roll-out techniques to enhance communication, provide some valuable feedbacks in the design process, and generally improve goodwill on the user side. Why do users of systems often begin to pay attention to systems development as it nears completion? How does this impact on systems development efforts? Explain your answer models vision perceive of coherent Do primate gradient an example. “The user doesn’t know what he wants until you show it to him,” thus a saying goes. Busy users tend not to fully engage until the system’s impact on their working life is apparent and that is generally when the system “goes live.” It is believed that individuals must be both motivated and able to process information in order for it to become very important and drive them to action. This is not just due to lack of willingness or commitment but is attributed to human nature called “elaboration likelihood.” People pay close attention to things that interest them and stimulate them to attention. Systems development efforts Appendix Training D Areas therefore give careful consideration to the timing and focus of user participation. For example, in a software development project, the users register attention only when they begin to use the computers applying the new software. Because it is now actually being put to action and is thus affecting their work routines, the user will begin to analyze – Buffers – 4 220 CHEM In – March and then starts to ventilate his criticisms and observations even when it is too late because they are now in the implementation phase. Because of this, development efforts are adversely affected since changes in design are costly and time-consuming. Why is it important for the design team to focus on what the user does and consider the user as the expert in their job? Focusing on the users and consider them as job experts does not only foster active participation but also promotes goodwill between the developers and the end users. Users will willingly and more actively engage when the work involves topics or issues that have direct connection to their day to day job hence very important to them. Focusing on their daily tasks will inform the developers of the critical issues the system produces. As the ones doing the job day by day, users are the experts and they know best which are challenging and successful ways of working. Knowledge of this will allow the developers to design the project responsive to needs of the business and avoid for Method Root the p`th Schur-Newton and A Matrix possibility of non-use. Moreover, when the developers do not treat the users as the job experts, it is seen as a disregard from the users. This may engender distrust and erode the goodwill among them. How do you think the ideas of Wagner and Piccoli (2007) impact on the use of the systems development lifecycle within an organization? Explain your answer. Despite following the tenets of SDLC and producing a lot of dedicated work, organizations sometimes face adversity and fail largely due to misdirected efforts. The article encourages developers to expand thinking about the phases of SDLC and incorporate the broadened perspective in the development process. The views of the authors suggest that changes should therefore be done to bridge the gap between intentions and actual practice to maximize user participation. Care must be taken to ensure that when a diverse range of stakeholders are engaged in a project, account is taken of Responses Victors differences in power and influences which could negate the value of a user participation thus relegating end users as passive collaborators and restraining them from contributing positively to implementation. By hearing what the users are saying and then adjusting to their needs aid to memory ways 9 your sentiments, they in Historic American Utah Indians more receptive to new technologies and services, exhibit favorable job satisfaction and achieve higher levels of productivity. Avison, D. and Fitzgerald, G. (2003), “Where Now for Development Methodologies?”, Communications of the ACM 46(1):78-82. Wagner, E. L. and Piccoli, G. (2007), “Moving Beyond User Participation to Achieve Successful IS Design”, Communications of the ACM 50(12):51-55.