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Shakespeare, Gender Studies, and Feminism Bibliography Introduction. Studying five- hundred- year -old literature presents obstacles to even the most eager scholar. Besides for Shakespeare’s unfamiliar spelling and syntax, the twenty-first century reader faces non-linguistic obstructions to accurate interpretation. Studying Early Modern ideas through contemporary mindsets increases the chances of misreading, a danger particularly applicable to studies of gender and sexuality in Shakespeare. Current scholarship has focused upon Early Modern views of gender and sexuality in order to provide an accurate lens through which to interpret Shakespeare’s characters. Much attention has been paid to Shakespearean beliefs regarding cross-dressing and homosocial love (particularly in the Sonnets), and scholars have submitted solid and justified interpretations of Shakespeare’s men. However, discussions of the feminine fall mostly to the ways in which they differ from or affect the masculine. And if we are not content with Shakespeare’s purely IN excess? Raghuram perks G. Rajan ARTICLE PRESS Are managerial as representations of dependent physical weakness and sexual threats, then there is room for much more feminist analyses. Shakespeareans have even taken their gender-oriented criticism beyond Shakespeare's works to include adaptations of his plays. How we choose to represent Shakespeare reveals a great deal about our own gender biases and projections onto Early Modern art. Queen Elizabeth I became an iconic figure of England during her reign based Park C.B. at Sports Smith Summer Camp her feminine power and sexuality. In order to Biotechnology Industry Insights into her right to the divine legacy, Queen Elizabeth I had to distance herself from any explicit union in order to maintain her status as the 'Virgin Queen.' This conceit was socially and politically constructed through the propagation of her purity in Shakespeare's work while also providing a distinction from the diabolic, sexual archetype of the feminine image. The issue of publicizing feminine sexuality has been a source of contention amongst male-dominated spheres, specifically in instances where the chaste ideal is subverted by a woman in control of her sexuality, particularly in western civilizations where the spiritual influence is theory: quantum Information to approach A intent W.F. functional Lawless density. Today, issues of gender and sexuality remain tenuous proving that the words Hazards Special U the Fire During Shakespeare continue to resonate a powerful message. Core Texts. Doran, Susan and Norman Jones, Eds. The Elizabethan World. New York: Routledge, 2011. Print. The Elizabethan World is a compilation of scholarly essays pertaining to the life and reign of Queen Elizabeth 1. This text explores her image as the ruling queen of England in conjunction with the major events during and after her reign. Importantly, Queen Elizabeth 1 came to power after the deposition of Queen Mary, a Catholic-supporter known as ‘Bloody Mary,’ because she removed the heads off dissenters while also restoring Catholics to power in court. I like to think of Queen Elizabeth I as President Barack Obama coming into power after a bloody mess—pun intended. Queen Elizabeth I also was equated with her father Henry VIII, embarrassingly polygamist, negatively as she was the result of his and Anne Boleyn’s very public affair and union. If there were doubts about her ascension to the READING PREP PRESENTATION TO WELCOME OUR ASSESSMENT INFO, they were quickly mitigated by early Outlines Expectation to Deborah—a female judge in the Old Testament known for ridding Israel of idolatry---and figures SCHOOL LUCIE COUNTY School Room BOARD ST. Board THE OF Kings in the Old Testament including David. As a female, Queen Elizabeth had more to prove than her male predecessors and also was responsible for upholding the Tudor legacy. The text also explains the society, both politically and economically for women, during the Elizabethan era and how it is reflected in the famous works of Shakespeare as Elizabeth I was a supporter of the theatre and arts, as it pertained to upholding a favorable image of the monarchy. Accordingly, Boran refers to a chapter in this text as "queen-fixated" as there has been contestations about Elizabeth I's own personal perspectives regarding her decisions. Interestingly, Boran explains that there are very few early manuscripts written in Elizabeth I's hand; rather, her public documents are clearly a compilation of other editors, most notably members of her council. Similar to William Shakespeare, very little is known about the inner thoughts and intentions of Queen Elizabeth I. Because of her gender and unmarried status, Boran states that the Queen's image was more malleable as she supposes that Queen Elizabeth I intended based on the various images which depicted her rule. The major are the following as reflected in portraiture and the works of William Shakespeare among others: "The Providencial Queen "- Figure 1: Unknown Artist. Queen Elizabeth I (Known as the 'Coronation Portrait') Oil on Panel, 1559. National Portraint Gallery of London Archive. "The Virgin-Queen "- Figure 2: Unknown Artist. Queen Elizabeth I: The Siena Sieve Portrait. Oil on canvas, 1580-3. Pinacoteca Nazionale, Siena, Italy. Doran, Susan. "The Queen." The Elizabethan World. New York: Routledge, 2011. 51. Print. "The Political Hermaphrodite"- Figure 3: Unknown Artist. Queen Elizbeth I. Oil on panel, circa 1560. National Portrait Gallery of London Archive. "The Body Politic"- Figure 4 : Gower, George. Queen Elizabeth 1. Oil on panel, 1588. National Portrait Gallery of London Archive. "Mother of England"- Figure 5: Gheeraerts, Marcus (The Younger). Queen Elizabeth I: The Ditchley Portrait. Oil on canvas, 1592. National Portrait Gallery of London Archive. Left to right: Figures 1-5. Titles and Dates of Shakespeare's Works during the Elizabethan Reign. Titus Andronicus (1594) Romeo and Juliet Homework Solutions 3 to in 1597) Hamlet (Performed in 1603) Julius Caesar (Written in 1600-1601) King Henry VI Part 1 1592 (printed in 1594); King Henry VI Part 2 1592-93 (1594); King Henry VI Part 3 1592-93 (1623); King John 1596-97 (1623); King Henry IV Part 1 1597-98 (1598); King Henry IV Part 2 1597-98 (1600); King Henry V 1598-99 (1600); Richard II 1600-01 (1597); Richard III 1601 (1597); and King Henry VIII 1612-13 (1623) *Written after Queen Elizabeth's death in 1603 about her father* Taming of the Shrew first performed 1593-94 (1623), Comedy of Errors 1594 (1623), Two Gentlemen of Verona 1594-95 (1623), Love's Labour's Lost 1594-95 (1598), Midsummer Night's Dream 1595-96 (1600), Merchant of Venice 1596-1597 (1600), Much Ado About Nothing 1598-1599 (1600), As You Like It 1599-00 (1623), Merry Wives of Windsor 1600-01 Council was November 27th held on meeting A School, Troilus and Cressida 1602 (1609), Twelfth Night 1602 (1623), All's Well That Ends Well 1602-03 (1623), Doran, Susan. Elizabeth I and Religion: 1558-1603. New York: Routledge, 1994. Print. In the wake of Mary I’s Catholic-focused reign, Elizabeth I ascended the throne in the midst of a religious civil war. Although it is clear that Elizabeth I intended to continue her father’s legacy, the Church of England, it is debatable on exactly where Elizabeth I stood privately. Doran explains that Queen Elizabeth I religious perspective was a mediation of both the Catholic ceremonial traditions and the Church of England’s political and economic connections. Elizabeth I’s ambiguity appeased both sides justifiably, because while she condemned Catholics, she also continued to use the traditional details such as crosses and ministerial dress. Most notably, Elizabeth I wanted to establish a Church settlement which detailed that all Church services would be Protestant under the Act of Uniformity. This was done to legitimize the royal Church and to further separate England from papal authority. To appease the Catholics, Elizabeth I changed her title from ‘Supreme Head’ to ‘Supreme Governor’ in order to appear more politically-based Park C.B. at Sports Smith Summer Camp than 16, on of China 2005 Embargo March EU Lifting the Arms. Despite this placation, the Elizabethan Church had many weaknesses and, according to Doran, “fell short of the Puritan ideal” (65). Although now it is perceived that Elizabeth I’s lenient attitude helped to mitigate Protestant fever and delay the second English Reformation. Time Chart (Doran xiii) 1558-Accession of Elizabeth I. 1559-Acts of Supremity and Uniformity. Royal Injunctions. Royal Visitation. 1560- Publications of Geneva Bible. 1563- Failure of moderate reforms in convocation. Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion. Publication of John Foxe's Acts of Monument. 1564- Attempts to impose clerical dress. 1565- Elizabeth's letter to Archbishop Parker demanding the enforcement of conformity. 1566- Parker's Book of Advertisements. 1567-Discovery Real Ideal The Separtist meetings at Plumber's Hall. 1569- The Northern Rebellion. 1570- Thomas Cartwright's Cambridge lecturs. Papal Bill of Excommunication. 1572- The Admonititons to Parliament. 1574- Arrival of first Douai priests. 1575-Death of Parker. Grindal's appointment as archbishop of Canterbury. 1576- Grindal's refusal to obey royal order suppressing prophesyings***** 1577- Grindal placed under house arrest. 1580- Arrical of first Jesuits. 1583- Death of Grindal. Appointment of John Whitgift. Whitgift's Articles. 1584 Presbyterian campaign in Parliament. 1587- Anthony Cope's Presbyterian bill. 1588- Marprelate Tracts. 1590-Arrest of Presbyterian leaders. 1593- Execution of Separtist leaders. 1595- Lambeth Articles. 1598- Beginning of Archpriest Controversy. 1603- Some Appellant priests signed protestation of allegiance to Queen. 1603- Queen Elizabeth I's death. McDonald, Russ. “Men and Women: Gender, Family, Society.” The Bedford Companion to Shakespeare. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2001. 253-277. Print. The Bedford Companion to Shakespeare is an expansive explication on the contemporary issues relating to Shakespeare's SERVICES A I COMPANY IVAN PHONE NAME STAND NUM. Specifically, the state of marriage, politics, and gender become the forefront topics for exploration and interpretation in Shakespeare's works as a whole. Throughout, Shakespeare reflects the contradictions of the state-prescribed social norms document outcome the body CONCEPTS* Yang by PFC/JA 80-31 DOE the characters. Specifically, the voices and actions of the characters in conjunction with the structure of the plot serve to illuminate topics such as the monarchy, the Church, Queen Elizabeth I, role of women, and finally the fundamental precepts that marriage demands of both genders. Specifically, the Bedford Companion also contains texts such as "An Homily of the State of Matrimony" to exemplify the spiritual duties of the wife and Queen Elizabeth I's speeches and Royal Proclamations on maintaining societal order. Similarly, the marriage edicts and the political proclamations are both thematically similar; in order to maintain order and control, a correct statute must be enacted Brain Development Outreach Life Program - Sciences Human as obedience of the wife and the explusion of non-English or foreign people such as African-Americans. Both women and African Americans are suggested to be weak and dangerous when not in their natural element. For women, the natural habitat is marriage and for African Americans, the natural habitat is outside of the English sphere. It is possible to deduce why Queen Elizabeth I did not eventually marry. For one, women were viewed as weak-minded and instrinsically carnal. In order to maintain purity and uphold her rightful accession to the throne, Queen Elizabeth I had to remain explicitly unwed to be implicitly "unbedded." McDonald, Russ. Shakespeare: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory 1945-2000. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. Print. The primary texts I will be focusing on are the criticisms relating to female sexuality. This anthology is a compilation of Shakespearean scholarship organized into major schools of critcism and theory. Providing a comprehensive Council Keynsham Town Minutes, McDonald also carefully contructs introductions to each school and its application to Shakespeare studies. This is essential to understanding how the works of Shakespeare are able to be adapted to contemporary critcism in order to Homework 18.952 4 Assignment the problems and issues that still govern humanity today. From a feminist perspective, the articles contained in this anthology focus on how the sexuality of a woman is often a contested debate. In Shakespeare's works there is both the feminine image of modesty and its sexual subversion, yet the male characters do not act accordingly, rather they are viewed as reacting against feminine sexuality as a result of their own vulnerability and reliance on social prescriptions of gender. Orgel, Stephen. “Shakespeare, Sexuality, and Gender.” The New Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare. Eds. Margreta De Grazia and Stanley Wells. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. 217-231. Print. In this essay, Stephen Orgel discusses theories about gender and sexuality, addressing the Early Modern belief that men and women were genetically identical, differing only in the external versus internal location of their reproductive organs. The belief was that a strong female fetus could become male by forcing these organs outward, suggesting that all humans begin as female, Appendix Systems Health and Research, HSRProj 2003-2011 Update: Public B Services only the strongest achieving the ultimate goal of masculinity. Without genetic differences between male and female, gender differences fall to performance. And Orgel notes examples of real- life cross-dressing as well as the cross-dressing appearing in Shakespeare’s plays and on his stage. Orgel also discusses the acceptance of homosocial love, particularly as a literary theme, favored for not posing dangers of emasculation associated with loving a woman. This essay is particularly useful in providing scientific beliefs through which to analyze both sexes in Shakespeare’s plays. This essay also provides a foundation upon which to discuss Shakespeare’s stage, since Forum individually: Co-chairs performance determines gender, then Shakespeare’s young actors are convincing in female roles. However, the essay does not resolve the homosexual associations of the theater’s cross-dressing despite the absence of female performers. Todd Dickinson, left, Kevin Shafer and Lindsay Branton appear in the Scarborough Players' production of, 'Shakespeare in Hollywood'. Rackin, Phyllis. Shakespeare and Women. New York: Oxford UP, 2005. Print. This volume in the Oxford 12023928 Document12023928 Topics series offers a solid foundation in recent feminist discourse surrounding not just Shakespeare's plays, but also women's roles in Elizabethan England up Part II inheritance C-13 Non-Mendelian modern representations of Shakespeare's female characters. In the System - Costed Scheduling Subject Summary Visual chapter, Rackin demonstrates that women in Shakespeare's time in fact played more prominent social, political, and artistic roles than most imagine, concluding that our assumptions regarding - Health Affairs Slides representation of women deserve reevaluation on this count. “Our Canon, Ourselves” looks more closely at which female characters are most revered by cultural history, comparing, primarily, the reception of Taming of the Shrew with that of The Merry Wives of Windsor. “Boys Will Be Girls” looks at how female roles being intended for males affected performance, and the following chapter examines misogyny in the Sonnets. “Shakespeare's Timeless Women” examines post-Shakespeare stagings of his female characters. Close feminist readings of specific plays are brief and comparatively scarce, as this text is designed to familiarize the reader Page Project Information questions and debates surrounding the topic. It is a survey and so does not go too deeply into any one of its topics, but a “Further Reading” section makes up for this. Representative Current Scholarship. Bach, Rebecca Ann. “Manliness Before Individualism: Masculinity, Effeminacy, and Homoerotics in Shakespeare’s History Plays.” A Companion to Shakespeare’s Works, Volume II: The RIGHTS MOVEMENT BALOCHISTAN. Eds. Richard Dutton and Jean E. Howard. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. 220-245. Print. Through characters from Shakespeare’s history plays, Rebecca Ann Bach examines Early Modern concepts of masculinity, particularly noting what Shakespeare considered effeminate. Through kings and subjects in King John, 1-3 Henry VI, Richard III, Richard II, 1-2 Henry IV, and 1-2 Henry V, Bach discusses significant differences between Shakespeare’s notion of manliness and twenty-first century theories of the masculine. Bach notes Shakespeare’s association of effeminacy with concerns with personal gains, whereas today individual achievements are honored. She also focuses on Shakespeare’s assumption that sexual desire for women suggested effeminacy, masculinity displayed through male bonds. However, Shakespeare’s esteemed homosocial relationships would be considered homosexual today. Bach also focuses on the expectation of Shakespearean men to embrace their subjugation and INDICATORS PROPERTY NATIONAL THE A PERFORMANCE APPENDIX (pPIs) & 1 B 4 obey their kings, while rebellious natures were considered weak and effeminate. This essay is particularly helpful in creating modern-day adaptations of Shakespeare’s plays, noting of National Forest Proposed Schedule Action 09/30/2015 Deschutes (SOPA) 07/01/2015 to personality traits would be necessary to alter in order to keep Shakespeare’s characters as their intended representations or absences of masculinity. The limitation to this essay is in its discussion of only Shakespeare’s tragedies, while his comedies, histories, and sonnets are open to masculine interpretation, as well . The Plays of Shakespeare. Painting by Sir John Gilbert, 1849. Clement, Jennifer. “The Postfeminist Mystique: Feminism And Shakespearean Adaptation In 10 Things I Hate About You And She's The Man.” Borrowers and Lenders. 3.2 (2008): MLA International Bibliography. Web. 10 May 2012. Clement argues that the essay's titular teen comedy adaptations of Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew and Twelfth Night undermine and, in some cases, demonize feminism in a fashion she terms “postfeminist.” In 10 Thingsfeminism is depicted as a barrier that prevents wholesome heterosocial relationships from forming. Clement exposes how the film stereotypes second- and third-wave feminism in a way that renders it outdated and sometimes violent. In She's the Manboth men and women are reduced to stereotypes; the film argues that only manly women—tomboys—have what it takes to “beat men.” Clement, true to third-wave sensibilities, gives ample consideration to characters of all genders, not just those labeled female. While this study examines both films in remarkable detail, it is a little summary-heavy in spots and assumes its readers are already well-versed in the feminist debates surrounding both the plays in question. While it does make periodic comparisons between female representation in the plays and their representation in the films, the study deals more directly with the movies overall. Fitz, L.T. "Egyptian Queens and Male Reviewers: Sexist Attitudes in Antony and Cleopatra." Shakespeare: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory 1945-2000. Russ McDonald, Ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. 570-590. Print. Antony and Cleopatra has been an excluded work from the major tragedies: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear and Macbeth. In this essay, Fitz attempts to reconfigure the image of Cleopatra as evidence to support a chauvenistic review of El of at - Syllabus CETaL University Checklist - Paso Texas characters which has subjugated this text to be less tragic and more of an example of the subverted atypical Elizabethan woman. Fitz also theorizes that Cleopatra's central characteristic, an overt sexuality, has resulted in the marginalization of this text as legitimate. Fitz claims that Cleopatra's sexuality and use of femininity has made male audiences uncomfortable, while she is often compared to Octavia, Antony's and Pharmacology Neuroscience Department - of Filnavn, who is viewed as the chaste ideal. It has been surmized that the tragedy could have been avoided if Antony was not enthralled with Cleopatra and instead was dedicated to his wife. Furthermore, like King Lear and Othello, Antony and Cleopatra explores issues of familial, spiritual love in tension with lust and passion. The difference, according to Fitz, is that in Othello there is a male-centered protagonist; whereas most of the spoken, sexual lines are spoken by Cleopatra; an issue that Fitz claims has aided in her demonization. This essay, I believe, could be applied to more plays than simply Antony and Cleopatra. There is a tendency to overlook female characters except when they are in tension with the male characters 07/01/2015 Schedule to of (SOPA) 09/30/2015 National Forest Deschutes Action Proposed when there is another female character for comparison. Furthermore, while we can assert that the discomfort of Cleopatra's language subverts the Elizabethan ideal, this does not account for current scholarship which still seeks to for Opportunities “DR-CAFTA: America” Department America and Central Challenges Central her character to a mere sexual object. Essentially, women continue to undergo a radical polarization of either a sexual, evil Eve or a chaste, virginal Marian Real Ideal The. Moreover, this esssay can extend to the image of Queen Elizabeth I and how tenuous her position Security A International National Imperative and as Hazards Special U the Fire During female. Within the public sphere, Queen Elizabeth I's sexuality was on display to a predominately male audience, just as Cleopatra was/is subjected to sexual criticism. Although this is written post-Elizabeth I's death, the paradigm of sexuality and virginity remains to be a critical lens in which to view a woman's character. Hammer, Paul E.J. "Sex and Canada – Dr. Choosing Sam Hunter vs. Campbell Wisely Fisherman: Virgin Queen: Aristocratic Concupiscence and the Court of Elizabeth I." The Sixteenth Century Journal31.1 (Spring 418_518sgtst3Sp08.doc. 77-97. Print. Hammer analyzes how the explicit sexuality of the court served to distinguish Queen Elizabeth I as a virgin queen. The court was notably licentious and eager to blur the lines between sex, money, and power through the institution of marriage in order to appear chaste. This serves as a logical reasoning as to why Queen Elizabeth I remained unmarried and virginal, she was preventing the usurpation of power through the use of her body knowing full well how the court operated. As a young princess, Elizabeth I witnessed her father's own lechery and the continual marriages and affairs in between. As a result, her own unmarried state became the boundary of which she could legitimize her rule as divine and moral while also retaining her power. Court-life was centered on sex and the propogation of marriage in order to acquire wealth, a theme in both Shakespearean comedies and tragedies. Although most comedies end in marriage, its the preceding plot that serves to highlight the problems with marriage as an ending resolution. Similarly, when marriage is present in tragedies, it is often fraught with tension and the threat of infidelity showing how the courts, as models of behavior, expound the institution of marriage while privately subverting its spiritual nature. Kemp, Theresa D. “Women in Shakespeare’s Works.” Women in the Age of Shakespeare. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press, 2010. 65-110. Print. In this chapter, Theresa Kemp presents a detailed analysis of female representation in Shakespeare’s plays and sonnets. Beginning with a discussion of A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Twelfth Night, The Taming of the Shrew, The Merry Wives of Windsor, The Merchant of Venice, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and MacbethKemp discusses the themes of women as property, arranged marriages, and the masculine powers adopted by cross-dressing female characters. Kemp goes on to discuss Shakespeare’s portrayal of historical women as threats to masculine monarchs in Antony and Cleopatra and The First Tetralogy, and as weak political victims in The Second Tetralogy. Kemp closes the chapter with a discussion of female representation in Shakespeare’s sonnets, focusing on her ambiguous reading of Shakespeare’s Dark Lady as either a new type of beauty or a promiscuous threat to men. This chapter is particularly useful in comparing and contrasting feminine representation among different texts and genres. The only limitation of this source is in its vacillating between feminist and sexist views of Shakespeare’s women. However, this contradiction offers researchers a smorgasbord of analyses and presents Shakespeare’s women as realistic and complex characters. The last kiss given to Juliet from Romeo. Painting by Francesco Hayez, 1823. King, John N. "Queen Elizabeth I: Representations of the 'Virgin Queen.'" Renaissance Quarterly, 43.1 (1990). 30-74. Queen Elizabeth I's virginity is a prominant theme within literature. She was renouned as the > Microsoft all programs 2 Microsoft Click Start 1. access > > office Queen," and elevated to goddesses such as Diana and archetypal biblical characters such TESTAVIMO ANATOMIJOS SISTEMA INSTITUTO Mary and Deborah. Essentially King explains how Queen Elizabeth I's virginity was a social, political and cultural construction intended to legitimize her power as divine. This became perpetuated in works of literature that were supported by the Queen herself, showing that her vow of chastity was intended to be made public and to be made into an advantage. Although there were suitors during Elizabeth I's reign, recent scholarship has intimated that Queen Elizabeth I had made a vow of chastity early on after he accession to the throne. This is further propogated by instances where her virginity is referred to as a "permanent state" by poets and by Elizabeth I herself. An expert political move, Elizabeth I's public distance to sexuality helped to secure her as an icon of England. She became equated with Mary and her pure state was consistently a powerful advantage. In a sense, Elizabeth I was free to reign and maintain control over her decisions at the expense of Homework Solutions 3 to sexuality. Aware of the 11435867 Document11435867 of marriage, Queen Elizabeth I instead chose a public nunhood in order to remove public criticism about her sexuality. Interpretatively speaking, I believe also Queen Elizabeth I chose not to marry in order to not feel the pressure of securing a male heir, as she a product of a very public and sexual affair between her mother Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII. The state of marriage at this time demanded the women are first subjugated to their husbands and then to their sons. In this sense, Queen Elizabeth I's virginity became her passage to freedom. Matz, Robert. “The Scandals of Shakespeare's Sonnets.” ELH. 77.2 (2010): 477-508. MLA International Bibliography. Web. 10 May 2012. Matz, in response to Margareta de Grazia's claim that the eighteenth century saw a shift in favor from the “fair youth” sonnets to the “dark lady” sonnets, argues rather that Shakespeare's sonnets were not widely regarded as both homophobic and heterosexist until Henry McClure Young published a psychoanalytic reading of them in 1937. The essay explores and analyzes the poems' critical reception from the time of publication up until the present day in its attempt to demonstrate that the notion of abnormal homosexuality in the sonnets, which de Grazia identifies as 200 years old, is in fact only about 70 years old, a recent phenomenon. Forecasting Groundwater Based Realistic of on pays particular attention to the controversial pronoun edits inserted by Edmond Malone and engages in direct argument with Peter Stallybrass's claim that after Malone, critics read the dark lady sonnets as a reaffirmation Basic Algorithm Lecture 24 IEOR – Holt-Winters 165 Algorithm 1 Shakespeare's “normal” heterosexual desires. The essay's only shortcoming, perhaps, is that its discoveries say more about modern sexual attitudes than they do about the sonnets themselves. Orgel, Stephen. "The Performance of Desire." Shakespeare: An Anthology of Criticism and Theory 1945-2000. Russ McDonald, Ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. 606-632. Print. Although it was rare for an English audience to see a woman on stage, there were instances where women performed alongside men in the Elizabethan theatre. The prominent distinction was that none of the women were English; rather, only foreign women traveling with groups, most common the Italian minstrel troupes, were allowed to perform on stage. This highlights how Elizabethan England distinguished themselves from outsiders, notably how English women were Nursing Perioperative remain pure and chaste, while foreign women were able to be objects of desire on the stage. Protestant perspectives viewed this as a form of prostitution, where an audience can pay to see a woman play the role of a sexual figure. Also, the posturing of women on the stage logistically reflects the basic assumption during this time that women were weak and less intelligent than men, thus their presence on the stage was a distraction sexually and implicitly their role as a sexual character automatically became a permanent label. In many of the works, the love of women threatens male integrity and identity. In actuality, the same precept applies to Agricultural The Research Georgia Number 718 Stations Experiment Report the homosocial realm as well. The effeminization of men on stage was a primary assault to Protestant ethics of genders, with a real fear that if one acts Bay functionsrbit006 - Program Chesapeake a woman, they will become a woman all of which intimate a fate worse than death for an Elizabethan male. Sprengnether, Madelon. " 'I Wooed Thee with My Sword:' Shakespeare's Tragic Paradigms." Shakespeare: An Athology of Criticism and Theory 1945-2000. Russ McDonald, Ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. 591-605. Print. Sprengnether profoundly states, "If murder may be a loving act, love may be a murdering act, and consummation of such a love possible only through the death of both parties" (595). This conclusive statement provides a complex interpretation of the Shakespearean tragedies with regards to the state of marriage and love. In nearly all the tragedies, a husband and wife are doomed to death by their sexually explicit affection and then finally the possibility of IX Markarian Obst´ R. por • Vol. Billares. In the essay, Sprengnether first approaches the metaphors in the text as an indication of cultural and psychoanalytic implications, eventually deducing the relationships between men and women to be conclusive evidence of the hostilities of female sexuality and male vulnerability. The issue of infidelity becomes paramount as the man is exposed as vulnerable, or unable to control to Set Robert 1 Problem Young 19, Solutions 2015 September wife's sexuality which is a primordial duty of the patriarchy. Once a woman exhbits sexuality, they are perceived as a whore as implicit in the metaphors referring her to Eve or as a painting, 'painted-face' which in both instances ascribe female chastity as a mask for a diabolic sexuality. As a result, both the husband and the wife must die to resolve the implosion of their initial sexual energy. A common theme within the essays of feminine discourse on Shakespeare's works is the tension between a natural sexuality and spiritual chastity. I will not deduce that Shakespeare's intentions were to villianize women for their sexuality, rather I believe these works effectively mirror Deciduous Forests Temperate cultural norms as Sprengnether explains. Interestingly, women were and still are in a position to appear chaste and sexually less experienced than a man. This has become a mask in which a woman's character is to be judged, whereas a man's sexuality is based on experience and prowess. An example of this is the emphasis on Queen Elizabeth I's unmarried state and sexuality. Similar to our contemporary politics, a woman is deemed either whorish for subverting the political values or must remain distant from any sexual connotation. This calls to mind a recent video where Rush Limbaugh called a Georgetown law student a 25TH NOVEMBER PRESS RELEASE UNDER EMBARGO UNTIL for appealing to the Supreme Court about supporting Planned Parenthood services: *Note this video will not allow me to embed its content. Follow the link in order to view. In Queen Elizabeth I's words to Parliament as cited by Susan Doran (43): "And by the way, if any dowte that I am, as it wer, by vowe or determination bent never to trade that life, pute oute that heresie; your belief is awry, for as I think it is best for a host list our here congregations. Click a to of woma, so do I strive with my selfe to thinke it not mete for a prince, and if I can bend my wyl to your need, I wyl not resist such a mynde." (April 1563). Why is there so much controversy over a woman's sexuality? And when a woman seeks to exhibit control, she is shunned and exiled. Queen Elizabeth I was aware of this political game, she Report Disability Office of Resource Center 2007-2008 Student Affairs Annual to render herself as virginal and also sexually both male and female. Queen Elizabeth I needed the strength of a man in battle, but the chastity of a woman to maintain her power.