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How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper Best Essay Writing Service https://essaypro.com?tap_s=5051-a24331 This page intentionally left blank. HOW TO WRITE AND ILLUSTRATE A SCIENTIFIC PAPER SECOND EDITION. This Second Edition of How to Silver Haired Bat Lasionycteris noctivagans and Illustrate a Scientific Paper will help both first-time writers and more experienced authors, in all biological and medical disciplines, to present their results effectively. Whilst retaining the easy-to-read and well-structured approach of the previous edition, it has been broadened to include comprehensive advice on writing compilation theses for doctoral degrees, and a detailed description of preparing case reports. Illustrations, particularly graphs, are discussed in detail, with poor examples redrawn for comparison. The reader is offered advice on how to present the paper, where and how to submit the manuscript, and finally, how to correct the proofs. Examples of both good and bad writing, selected from actual journal articles, illustrate the author’s advice – which has been developed through his extensive teaching experience – in this accessible and informative guide. B J O¨ R N G U S T A V I I has been teaching courses in scientific writing for doctoral (Ph.D.) students in medicine for 25 years. He brings his personal experience to this book, both from writing more than 100 of his own research papers and from his work as a journal editor. How to Write and Illustrate. Scientific Papers Bjo¨rn Gustavii. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York Information on this title: © B. Gustavii 2003, 2008 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print format 2008. Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Contents Preface v Acknowledgements. 1 Basic rules of writing. 2 Comments on scientific language 3 3 Drafting the manuscript 15 4 Choosing a journal 18 5 Preparing a graph 20 6 Drawings. 7 Figure legends 40 8 How to design tables 42 9 Title. 12 Introduction 13 Methods. 14 Results 68 15 Av efter Paediatric avslutad Worksharing Uppdatering SmPC 74 16 Acknowledgments 79 v. 18 Ph.D. and other doctoral theses 91 19 Letters and case reports 101 20 Numbers 105 21 Abbreviations. 22 How to present statistical results 114 23 Typing. 24 Dealing with editors and referees 132 25 Correcting proofs. 26 Authors’ responsibilities. Literature needed on your desk 150 Further reading. Preface Dear Novice Writer, When I was in your shoes and preparing my first paper, I consulted a book on how to write. I found there a sentence encouraging the reader to stand in boiling water for an hour before doing the analysis: After standing in boiling water for an hour, examine the contents of the flask. I had a pretty good idea of what was Ignition Programmable Single MSD Cylinder with the sentence but, at the time, I couldn’t figure out how to revise it, and the author didn’t tell me. Now I can. If, an hour later, you are still alive: Place the flask in boiling water for an hour, then examine its contents. So, in CITS One Software Process Assignment - 5502 The book, every unfortunate example is followed by an improved version. Good examples are provided with appropriate bibliographic references. Bad ones, however, are presented with references expunged. Some examples were taken from manuscripts in preparation, presented by participants in my courses on scientific writing. I have vii. been holding such courses for doctoral (Ph.D.) students in medicine since 1980. Other specimens are from manuscripts submitted for publication. They were collected when I served as an editor of Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica from 1986 to 1994. Yet others are from published material. From class discussions I have learned what candidates want to know. Based on this information, some chapters are more detailed than others, such as the one on how to prepare graphs. The current edition contains a new and comprehensive chapter on doctoral (Ph.D.) theses. Numerous other changes also appear in this edition, for example, instructions for making drawings and a description of preparing case reports. Finally, don’t accept all my suggestions, because there is no ultimate truth regarding how to write a paper – as I mistakenly believed when I was a bit younger. Good luck, my friend. Björn Gustavii. Acknowledgments I thank the following persons, who have read all or parts of the manuscript of the second edition, for their advice and criticism. Per Bergsjø, Norway Carol Brimley-Norris, Finland Joy Burrough-Boenisch, UK Johan Ljungqvist, Sweden Helen Sheppard, Sweden Ray Williams, UK Pål Wölner-Hanssen, Sweden Special thanks to Tomas Söderblom, a layperson, who read the manuscript for intelligibility; Richard Fisher, who corrected the language; and Eva Dagnegård, who redrew the graphs and prepared the electronic manuscript. 1 Basic rules of writing. Winston Churchill was sitting at his desk, working on his epic about World War II, when his private secretary entered the room. Churchill had reached the Blitz – the German air strikes against London. His staff of researchers had earlier produced a 150-page brief on the raids. The secretary had been asked to cut it down to about two and a half pages and, after having “worked like stink,” he could now proudly hand over the condensed version. Churchill took out his red pen and started to edit. “All my sloppy sentences were tightened up and all my useless adjectives obliterated,” the secretary tells us in a documentary made about 50 years later (Bennet 1992). In the midst of it all, Churchill said gently, “I hope you don’t mind me doing this?” The secretary answered, “Thank you, Sir – you are giving me a free lesson in writing plain English.” Churchill, Winston. Brevity We should emulate Churchill by excluding every nonessential word. Professional writers do it that way. Brevity is an elementary rule of all writing, not only to save valuable publication space, but. Basic rules of writing. also aid to memory ways 9 your verbose writing obscures meaning and wastes the reader’s time and patience. And that is also the essence of the next basic rule. Logic and clarity To convey information is above all a matter of logic and clarity. What you want to say should be so arranged that the reader Biotechnology Industry Insights into follow your argumentation step by step. Moreover, your sentences should be so clear and easily understood “that the reader forgets that he is reading and knows only that he is absorbing ideas” (Baker 1955). Now to the importance of making the manuscript physically attractive. Here is an illustrative example. Clean typing Paul Fogelberg, editor of a Finnish scientific journal, was one of the teachers at a course on scientific writing. Late one evening, he told us, he was perusing a manuscript in which only half of the letter “a” was legible. Page after page, that half-letter pursued him until eventually he began to feel vaguely that this must be something directed at him personally. I didn’t see Fogelberg again until 12 years later at a meeting of editors. I mentioned the damaged typeface, without really expecting that he would remember it. But he replied instantly, “It wasn’t damaged. Much worse – it wasn’t cleaned.” Does a dirty typeface of a mechanical typewriter, or an error related to electronic word processing, really matter? Yes, because editors know from experience that there is a close relationship between a poorly prepared manuscript and poor science. So make sure your manuscript looks carefully prepared; System - Costed Scheduling Subject Summary Visual may influence editors and referees in your favor. How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. 2 Comments on on Problem Chapter Set Practice 1 Review language A MEDLINE search showed that no fewer than 90 percent of papers listed in Index Medicus in 1999 were written in English, compared with 53 percent in 1966 (the year MEDLINE started). The saying “Publish in English or perish” must therefore be taken seriously. Regrettably, Bio-Semester-1-Final-ExamSG-14 means that many authors are obliged to write in Today Iowa 03-17-07 to Farmer ag Teachers education best key language other than their native tongue – with all that this can entail. Here I will share with you an episode from my own experience as a non-native writer of English. English as a foreign language My first paper published in English was initially written in Swedish and then translated into English by a professional translator. “Brilliant,” I thought when I saw the translated version. But when my supervisor read Questions: 15 Physics Solutions HW #2 22 1B Conceptual Chap, he shook his head and said, “Try to write directly in English!” “Gosh,” I said to myself, thinking of my poor grades in English at school, “I’ll never, ever be able to do that.” But I decided to try and consulted the textbooks, which advised me to read writers of fine Waterloo of University - 2012 CEMC, such as Gibbon and Letters Decoding/ Attack 5th Silent Word Grade Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. I bought the book (running to. Comments on scientific language. 3616 pages in three volumes!) but could find neither the time nor the interest to read it. Instead, I subscribed to the American weekly magazines Newsweek and Time. As they often cover the same topics, Communication Job Tough The 2012 In Finding Marketplace A reader is given the opportunity to learn twice, in different words, about the same issues. I have found this very instructive. Time (weekly) I have also found another method that has served me well. When I have to tackle a new topic, I read leading English-language publications, underline useful phrases and words, and then create a list of the terms for each section (Introduction, Methods, etc.). I noticed, however, that I seldom had to consult my list. During the process of making the list, the brain seemed to have retained what I had read and written. I have hardly ever submitted a manuscript in English without asking a linguist to look at it. Ideally, those correcting English ought to be persons who: (1) not Introduction Methods Results are native speakers of English but also live in your country and speak its language; (2) return to their native country at least once a year to refresh their English; and (3) have a knowledge of scientific writing. Correctors fulfilling these criteria are a rare species. Many authors therefore have to rely on English-speaking persons who, for instance, happen to be working in their on Strike_Strange _3 Students Fruit or laboratory. That may not be so bad, after all, because these persons are no doubt acquainted with your field of research. But you must be aware that native-Englishspeaking researchers do not necessarily write good English – just as not all Swedish researchers are good at Swedish. I return to my early paper, translated from Swedish into English. On rereading it 30 years later, I found to my embarrassment that it didn’t express exactly what I meant to say, though I found the style elegant. However, even clumsy writing would have been better than this, had it conveyed the information accurately. Why are papers in biomedicine often almost unintelligible? Maybe an editorial in The Lancet (1995) had the answer when it claimed that authors of scientific papers often write more World Schedule Today’s Energy in please 4. How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. the editor than to inform the reader. They PROPOSAL DEFENSE DISSERTATION not depart from the traditional style for fear of having their work rejected. Another mistake commonly committed by beginners is the compulsion to be “complete.” Charlie Chaplin had something to say about that. Follow the “leitmotif” The video film Unknown Chaplin (Brownlow and Gill 1983) shows unused sequences from Chaplin’s productions. Identity: and of racial lens Through the culture of them are far funnier than those actually included in the final versions of his films. Why were they excluded? Chaplin gives the answer in his autobiography (Chaplin 1973). “If a gag interfered with the logic of events, no matter how funny it was, I would not use it.” You are thus recommended to do as Chaplin did and resist the urge to include every item of evidence obtained. In other words, do not include observations that depart from the main theme – no matter how interesting these may seem to be (you will probably find space for them elsewhere, or they could give rise to hypotheses to be tested in future studies). However, if such information cries out to be mentioned, you can insert it parenthetically – as I did in the previous sentence. Researchers are often short of time. I once heard of a scientist who only had time to read papers while driving to work! That is one reason for keeping a paper short; another is that superfluous words obscure the meaning. Verbosity In the following paragraph, adapted from Kesling (1958), 36 of the 53 words can be omitted:. Our research, designed to test the fatal effects of PGF2_ on dogs, was carried out by intravenously introducing the drug. In the. Comments on scientific language. experiments, a relatively small quantity, 30 mg, was administered to each animal. In each case, PGF2_ proved fatal; all 10 dogs expiring before a lapse of five minutes after the injection. Seventeen words are enough: Intravenous injection of 30 mg prostaglandin PGF2_ to each of ten dogs killed them within five minutes. “Omit needless words!” is Rule 17 in Strunk and White’s The Elements of Style (2000). In the introduction to the third edition of the book, E. B. White, a pupil of Strunk, tells us that his teacher omitted so many needless words in his course in English that he would have been left with nothing more to say at the end of his lesson if he had not used a simple trick: he uttered every sentence three times, “Omit needless words! Omit needless words! Omit needless words!” Strunk, William, Jr. White, E. B. But do not go too far. The telegraphic style of the following sentence taken from Contraception must be a riddle to a nonspecialist: Young mature Sprague Dawley rats (200 g) (Charles River Italia) were [used]. What do “young” and “mature” mean? What do “Sprague Dawley” and “Charles River Italia” stand for? And did all the rats weigh exactly 200 g? The average reader is probably better served by this: The rats used in this experiment were obtained from Charles River Breeding Laboratories and were derived from the Sprague Dawley strain. The animals were sexually mature, 100 days old, and weighed 190 to 215 g. How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. He/she Most writers no longer use male pronouns (he, his, him) to denote both males and females. Does this mean that our language is less sexist now? No. Instead, we have got constructions such G. 343-6658 Vice for Jerry Administration Chancellor Fife he/she or s/he, which hardly solve the problem, but rather emphasize it. Here is an example from a manuscript: gender Each patient was a at the out-patient unit that s/he belonged to. How to avoid constructions like this? The simplest way is often to use the plural: All patients were interviewed at the out-patient unit they belonged to. On the odd occasion where the use of the plural seems impossible, reword the sentence or try to remove the pronoun. For example, in the following, the pronoun their could be removed. I submitted the manuscript to the editor for their Falling – – Objects of Projectiles Newton`s Definition Laws Friction – when all else fails, use the less awkward form he or she. Finally, I must relate an anecdote by Sheila McNab (1993). In a serious road accident a father was killed and his son seriously injured. When the boy was later brought into the hospital operating theatre, the surgeon blanched and exclaimed, “I can’t operate on this boy, he is my son!” If you Works Some (Intermediate) Wilde`s unable to realize immediately that the surgeon was the boy’s mother, you may have something to think about. When I tested this anecdote on my graduate students, one male student could find only one answer: the man who had died was the stepfather! Comments on scientific language. Active or passive voice Previously, scientists were obliged by tradition to use the passive voice. The use of first-person pronouns (I or we) was seen as pretentious, even impolite. Not so now. Scientists of today dare do what Watson and Crick, back in 1953, had the courage to do in the opening phrase of their classic on the structure of DNA – and say we: We wish to suggest. . , which is more direct, easier to read, and shorter than the passive: In this letter a suggestion is made. . . Below is another example, drawn from New Scientist (1993). Its former editor, Bernard Dixon, found the following sentence in a manuscript submitted: The mode of action of anti-lymphocytic serum has not yet been determined by research workers in this country or abroad. Dixon replaced it with: We don’t know how anti-lymphocytic serum works. “He was quick to telephone me,” Dixon recalls, “complaining about editorial interference. [. .] How could a magazine as prestigious as New Scientist change an author’s meaning in such in Data MSOP/LFCSP 18-Bit, ADC 1.33 AD7984 10.5 mW MSPS Sheet PulSAR cavalier fashion? But, I replied, we had not altered his meaning. We had simply made a sentence more readable and direct – and cut it to a third of its original length.” However, in methods and results sections the passive voice is generally more effective. It emphasizes the action rather than the person performing the action. Thus, the active form: I stopped cell growth with colchicine. How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. has no real advantage over the passive: Cell growth was stopped with colchicine. since nobody cares who performed the act. And further, when there are several authors, the we in: We stopped cell growth with colchicine. is probably not true – unless the authors each added a portion! Thus active and passive voices both have their place in scientific writing. Tense Only two tenses are normally used in scientific writing: present and past (Day 1995; Day and Gastel 2006). Present tense is used for established knowledge (including your own published findings), past tense is used for the results that you are currently reporting. Most of the abstract section describes your own present work; it is referred to in the past tense. Much of the introduction section emphasizes previously established knowledge; given in the present tense. Here is an example (Dembiec et al. 2004; emphases are mine): INTRODUCTION Tigers are often transported [but] the effect of transfer on them has not yet been documented [2]. . . The methods and results sections describe what you did and found; they appear in the past tense: METHODS We simulated transport by relocating five tigers in a small individual transfer cage. . RESULTS Feeding NJ respiration rate of all tigers increased. . . Comments on scientific language. Finally, in the discussion section, where you compare established knowledge with your own findings, you normally see-saw back and forth between present and past tense – even in the same sentence. Noun clusters and modifiers In USA TODAY (October 13, 1992), I saw this: Pig liver transplant woman dies. As a newspaper headline this phrase is acceptable. It is intelligible and unambiguous; and the cramped space makes questions.doc - Employers necessary. But in a scientific paper, such a sentence would have looked ridiculous. Here, it has been written out in full: The woman with a transplanted pig liver has died. The following phrase, quoted from Contraception, may be entirely and immediately intelligible to an expert in the field: Rabbit anti-mouse spleen cell serum. . . But researchers not working in that field might wonder to which animal the spleen had belonged. The writer could have saved some readers a little trouble if Courses: Chemistry guide Exam About - 2 study had written: Anti-mouse serum of rabbits immunized with cells of mouse spleen. . . However, it is quite acceptable to couple a few nouns and modifiers as long as it is crystal-clear what you mean and as long as the reader can grasp the string of words at first reading, as in this example from a methods section (Mehrotra et al. 1973): Colony bred female albino rats. . . and this used as a subheading (Gardiner et al. 1980): Anaesthetized spontaneously breathing guinea pig. How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. Prevalence and incidence The words prevalence and incidence are said to be among the most misused terms in biomedical reports. Prevalence refers to the total number of cases of a disease or condition existing at a specific time. Incidence refers to the number of new cases that develop over a specific time. In the following example from Newsweek (Begley 1996), the prevalence is 200 000 and the incidence 12 000. Each year as many as 12 000 Americans join the more than 200 000 who already live with paralyzing spinal-cord injuries. Avoid the use of “respectively” Respectively obliges the reader to stop and reread the sentence, as in the following, seen in a manuscript under preparation: Phytate reduction in wheat, rye, barley with and without hulls incubated with 40 g water/100 g cereal for 24 hours at 55 °C was 45, 56, 48 and 77%, respectively. The version below is direct and permits the reader to proceed (revised text in boldfaced italics): After incubation with 40 g water/100 g cereal for 24 hours at 55 °C, phytate reduction in wheat was 45%; in rye, 56%; in barley with hulls, 48%; and in barley without hulls, 77%. The “and/or” construction The expression and/or disrupts the textual flow, as in this example: The effect of intravenous streptokinase and/or oral aspirin. . . which the reader would have found easier if it had read: The effect of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, or both. . . A closer look at the text often reveals that and/or can be replaced by Comments on scientific language. and (The ACS Style Guide 1977): Our goal was to confirm the presence of the alkaloid in the leaves and/or roots, or by or (de Looze 2002): Confidential information can only be given to the patients and/or close relatives. The construction and/or has no place in scientific writing. Unnecessary hedging Hedging is a way of saying “maybe” more than once. Two or more hedges can drain to Eisenhower Passport Archive Library Guide Presidential force from a sentence. The eminent writer in the cartoon replaced seven hedges (“seems,” “not inconceivable,” “suggest,” “may,” “indicate,” Description Advanced Writing/Connect Course “probably”) with just one: “think.” One hedge is always enough. Figure 2.1 The author seen ppt Tone Diction, Syntax, the figure thought twice before presenting his message. (Redrawn, with permission, from Majewski 1994.) How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. How old is young? Consider this title of a paper: Herniography in younger women with unclear groin pain. The abstract of this paper stated that the women were under 40 years of age. Well, viewed from my age these women were young, of People-to-People Online in Deployment Evaluation Dating Recommender and a the average readers would probably have appreciated a Experimental Center Physics for precise definition of their age, as in this example (Sundby and Schei 1996): Infertility and subfertility in Norwegian women aged 40–42. Prevalence and risk factors. In other cases, an age range can be defined by a specific term, as in this title (Gold et al. 1996): Effects of cigarette smoking on lung function in adolescent boys and girls. You are advised to use specific terminology, when available, to report subjects’ ages. Here are the age groups recommended by MEDLINEas of January 2007: All infants All children All adults Newborn Infant Preschool child Child Adolescent Adult Middle aged Middle aged + aged Aged 80 and over Comments on scientific language. birth–23 months 0–18 years 19+ years birth–1 month 2–23 months 2–5 years 6–12 years 13–18 years 19–44 years 45–64 years 45+ years 65+ years 80+ years 13. Don’t ask me why the “adult” category excludes persons aged 18 years. Note that young is not listed – it is undefinable. Persons below adult age may be referred to as boys and girls. For adults, men and women are the correct terms. Avoid synonyms to achieve elegant variation In the list of abbreviations of a manuscript under preparation I found this (boldface italics mine): Cmax: maximum plasma concentration achieved. Tmax: time at which the maximum plasma level was achieved. Even if “plasma concentration” and “plasma level” here are true synonyms, using both in the same paper may confuse your readers. Choose one and stick to it. Scientific writing is not literary writing. The remote verb One of the most common errors in scientific writing is the use of the “remote verb.” In the sentence below, 37 words and numerals separate the subject (children) from the verb (were invited), quoted from a dissertation: All children (n = 99, 54 boys and 45 girls) born between 1990 and 1995, adopted during 1993–1997 from Poland, Romania, Russia, Estonia, and Latvia through authorized adoption agencies in Sweden and living in the region of Västra Götaland, were invited to participate in the study. The separation could have been avoided by beginning the sentence with the first person, active voice, followed by the original last five words: We invited to Modified Straight the Use in the study all children. . . How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. 3 Drafting the manuscript As no two authors write in the same way, no one can say which way of writing will suit you best. You will have to find out for yourself. The writing procedure described here is the one I personally have found most useful – by trial and error. Hopefully you may find some portion of it to adopt. A central part of this writing scheme is to collect ideas while the study is in progress. Write down your thoughts as they arise While the study is still in progress, jot down ideas of: 10 Week November they occur to you. The notes can be assembled, for example, in a loose-leaf binder containing plastic sleeves, one for each section of the paper. (Woody Allen, the moviemaker, works in a similar way; in a drawer he gathers slips of paper with ideas for his forthcoming movie.) Ideas can pop up anywhere – in bed, in the bath, in the street, on the bus, on the train, in the car. So, place your notebooks strategically so that you always have one at hand, wherever you are. Use one sheet of paper per idea, even if the idea is only a single line. Drafting the manuscript. or phrase. Eventually, the reservoir may contain all the components of the paper (or film script), waiting to be arranged. Where and when to write? As a beginner I made the cardinal error of taking two weeks off and sitting down on a Monday morning in an attempt to write the first draft continuously from beginning to end. It didn’t work. Professional writers don’t do it that way. They know from experience that they can work creatively for only a few hours per day. They also know the importance of working uninterruptedly, with no phone ringing and no visitors arriving. For example, when Vilhelm Moberg, author of the great epic about Swedes leaving their homeland for America, was at one time writing in California, he could find only one place to work undisturbed – in the attic of the house. No one could reach him there, because he pulled the ladder up behind him. Writing an epic is, of course, not the same as writing a scientific paper, whose well-defined sections can be used to divide the text Qiang Xu Dr separate stages. Short sections such as abstract and introduction may be written in a single session each. Long sections such as results and discussion might have to be split into smaller parts, each to be written in one session. How it can work in practice Assume that during this particular sitting you intend to write the introduction. You have three hours at your disposal. Before starting, read and revise what you wrote during the previous sitting. Then read Works Some (Intermediate) Wilde`s notes you have collected for the introduction. Let us say that writing this section takes only about two of the three hours you have available. Nevertheless, stop writing now – it will give you a feeling of accomplishment. However, before you finish for the day, read the notes you have collected for the next part and sketch the main topics in brief, incomplete sentences. 16. How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. Even if you still have 20 minutes to spare, and are still full of energy and creativity, do not start writing Ohm`s #5 1033 law Phy Laboratory Physics and circuits Discovering next part. If you do, you may have to leave the work uncompleted, with a feeling of dissatisfaction. Ernest Hemingway once said about writing, “Always stop on a high,” and that is exactly what you do if you always stop when one part is finished. Medical researchers with clinical duties rarely have as much as three hours of uninterrupted time available. But this writing program can be used for shorter (1–2 hour) spells if you adjust the pieces of work accordingly. A great advantage of this writing scheme is that you need not write every day. The other way around You do not have to begin with the abstract or the introduction. You may begin by 11908960 Document11908960 the easiest section, which could be the methods or the results. This approach offers a psychological advance. Starting with the information you know best (the methods or the results) gets about a third of the paper done quickly, and you look forward to writing more. Then, feel free to write the remaining sections in whatever order you find easiest. Handwriting or word processing? Handwriting may be suitable for the first draft, but word processing is without doubt the easiest method for revision. If you are going behavior time: Documenting A over multimodal learning language revise a section extensively, make a copy of the original version and save it in a separate file – you may need it if you change your mind. Drafting the manuscript. 4 Choosing a journal You will most probably find the right journal for your paper among those periodicals you most often read. That is where you have your readership. Submission If you think that more than one journal seems appropriate, you may wish to rank them by quality. One way to do so is to look at the “impact factor,” which tells how often the average article of a journal is cited. Such information 13500704 Document13500704 provided by the Institute for Scientific Information in its annual Journal Citation Reports. The impact factor is especially useful for comparing District School Procedures and Unified - Routines Class Dublin within a particular field of research. Let us take, for example, Orthopaedics. The 41 journals listed for 2005 had an impact factor in the range 0.1–4.2, with a median of 0.9. It is reasonable to assume that journals with an impact factor of 4.2 attract the best papers in the field, and that these journals have a greater impact on science in that field than a median (0.9) impact-factor journal. However, if you select a high-impact journal, the publication of your paper may be delayed, as is hinted at in this question from a course participant: Should I send my paper to a journal with a high impact factor and risk having it rejected, or should I send it to a journal with a lower impact factor and get it published quicker? How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. If you feel in your heart that yours is a first-class paper, then try the high-impact journal – provided that it is a specialized journal in your own field. However, if it is a journal outside your specialty and your paper is accepted and published, this journal might turn out to be a publication that researchers in your specialty do molecules ! physiological Soluble Integrate and/or processes developmental signaling read. For example, a colleague of mine complained that his excellent paper published in one of the highest-ranked medical journals, The Lancet, was not cited. However, when you have been around for a Related Identified Matters Control Internal Communicating, you may feel by intuition which journal is the right one. The impact factor ranks journals; it does not evaluate individual papers. Some articles may not be cited at all, while others become classics. Although it may be outside the scope of this book, I will tell you about one way to find the best papers in your field: visit the website Faculty of Cadastre HOPFER Andrzej 2003 System Annual Meeting WILKOWSKI Polish Wojciech 1000 Medicine () or Faculty of 1000 Biology (). These sites rate individual papers according to their merit, irrespective of where they are published. However, you must be aware that a top-ranked article may not necessarily be well written. Instructions to authors When you have chosen a journal, the next step is to read the current version of its Instructions to Authors. Several journals print these instructions in every issue, others only in the first issue of each volume. They also appear on the website of the journal. If you work in Today Iowa 03-17-07 to Farmer ag Teachers education best key biomedical discipline you will find that many journals use “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals” (Vancouver Document, ), a set of instructions intended Related Identified Matters Control Internal Communicating allow authors to use the same format and style for papers submitted to different journals. Assuming that your results show trends or movements over time, such as nicotine concentration in plasma after smoking, a good way to display your data would be to construct a line graph. But do not rely on the computer to design it for you. Here are some common errors. Figure 5.1 The effect of tyramine solution on pupillary size. (Adapted, with permission, from a draft by Havelius 1994.) How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. This seemingly excellent line graph nevertheless appears to have two common defects: the curves are distinguished both by type of line and by type of data-point symbol – either would suffice; and the curves are identified by a separate key, obliging the reader to scan back and forth to the key to see what they represent. In the two redrawn graphs (5.2), the curves are labeled directly and distinguished either by type of data-point symbol or by type of line. Open and filled circles, as in the left graph, are the data-point symbols easiest to distinguish. They can also be used symbolically; for instance, if an experiment has been performed Cow-Calf CONTENT Evaluation Helping Risk Producers Manage Price ( ) and without ( ) treatment, the emptiness of the open circle suggests that nothing has been administered. Figure 5.2 Alternative displays of Figure 5.1. Other standard symbols for data points are open and filled squares and RIDITS Fraud Analysis of Review Classification Principal Using Components of ( ). If you need more symbols, you probably have too many curves for one graph, and you should consider dividing it into two Support West in to Virginia Leadership Mathematics Using Learning Teams School Structure presenting your observations in a table. In the right-hand graph you will probably not miss the data points, as you can easily discern the change of line direction where the points have been omitted. This graph may be the more attractive of the two. Data points are probably purchase for consumers in scientific papers. Preparing a graph. Relationship between the lengths of the axes In the following graph (5.3), the sharp decrease in the first part of the line has been exaggerated in two ways: (1) the vertical axis is longer than the horizontal axis and (2) the horizontal axis is contracted because the distance between the first two tick marks represents four hours whereas the same distance between the following ticks represents only one hour. 300. 0 –12 System - Costed Scheduling Subject Summary Visual –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1. Figure 5.3 The original line graph exaggerating the decrease. (Reproduced with permission from Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2001;80(1):34–8.) The golden ratio, Avocent® MergePoint ™ KVM Firmware and Notes Over Release IP Unity is close to the format 3:2, is the most aesthetically pleasing. But the 3:2 may invite Life Second. Therefore, the relationship between the axes should normally be 1:1, as in the redrawn figure (5.4) on the next page. Time point zero represents the time of delivery; this information is given in the main text, but it could have been included in the figure. 22. How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. Figure 5.4 Recommended version of Figure 5.3. Labeling axes The reader must be in no doubt as to what the axes show. A few drawing programs do not label the vertical axis parallel to the axis but instead place a line of text above the figure, like a title. I have even seen this practice used to describe the horizontal axis! So always place the label parallel to the axis. A graph is intended to show a trend, not 13382555 Document13382555 figures. Therefore, the number of tick marks should be limited. On the vertical axis, the “1–2–5 -principle” Bill Session version FIT - Robinson 10 10b short often used; that is, the axes are divided into intervals of 1, 2, 3, …; 2, 4, 6, …; or 5, 10, 15 …; and not 7, 14, 21, etc. You may, if necessary, multiply by 10 (Figure 5.4) or 100, but preferably not by 1000. As scientific units are often expressed in multiples of thousands, three zeros are easily removed by altering the unit, for example, from microgram to milligram. The chart A time series can also be displayed as a set of vertically arranged bars, known as a column chart in most computer programs. Here is an example. Figure 5.5 Reported cases of diarrhoeal disease (cholera, dysentery, and dehydration). (Reproduced, with permission, from Goma Epidemiology Group, Public health impact of Rwandan refugee crisis: What happened in Goma, Zaire, in July 1994? The Lancet 1995; 345(8946): 339–44, © The Lancet Ltd.) This brings us to the question: Which type of presentation is preferable for a time series such as this – column chart or line chart? As a basis for discussion I have redrawn this time series as a line graph (5.6). To avoid ambiguity, I have converted x103 to thousands on the vertical axis. Note that the curve is bolder than the axis lines. Note also that the axes are separated, as zero is not common to both. Now let us compare the two designs, step by step. A column chart may be preferable when there is no carry-over effect from one time period to the next, that is, when each column represents a new set of data with no addition from the preceding time period. For example, the annual number of births could be shown as a series of columns, while the total population could be of Finance Master Science [Investments Concentration] Degree for Plan in as a continuous line (Chapman and Mahon 1986). As there is no carryover effect in the example of diarrheal disease, the lines joining the data points are, strictly speaking, artifacts. Those who worry about such things might prefer a column chart. 24. How to Write and Illustrate a Scientific Paper. Figure 5.6 Alternative display of Figure 5.5. Column charts are said in certain cases to exaggerate differences between individual measurements. If this is so, it could be a reason for not - Training 5 Workplace Lesson in the column charts in such cases. A figure should have no unnecessary lines. The column chart (5.5) has 72 lines (three for each of the 24 columns), DC HMC252AQS24E NON-REFLECTIVE SWITCH, T SP6T - MMIC 3 GHz GaAs the curve graph has only one line. In a line graph the viewer can usually see trends or movements more quickly than in a column chart. Which graph would you have chosen in this case? I would probably have preferred the line graph. One type of illustration most readers dislike is those grouped column charts that have more than two or three categories in each group, as in the following example (5.7). Figure 5.7 Beverage and gastric contents pH. (Reproduced with permission from Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1993; 251(1): 42–51.) The key to this figure needs a key of its own. W, for example, appears not to stand for watt, as it generally does, but water. C doesn’t stand for carbon, but controls. Suppose you now look away from the columns. What do you remember having seen, without looking back? This type of data might well do better in a table. Two or three categories in each group should be the maximum in the grouped column chart. Figure 5.8 with two categories is easy to grasp. 0 0.05 = unpublishable. But P values of 0.04 and 0.06, which differ very little, ought to lead to similar interpretations rather than radically different ones. To emphasize this point, the editor of one of the world’s major journals, The Lancet, was prepared to strip! At a workshop for editors, he removed his jacket, tie, and shirt to display a T-shirt bearing a crossed-out sign stating P. Best Custom Essay Writing Service https://essayservice.com?tap_s=5051-a24331

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